Polish transport market - is a highly developed market from the European perspective. Since 2004, when Poland joined the EU, continuous investment and development of transport infrastructure significantly determined the level and quality of transport services. An extensive and widely available network of national roads and motorways, and ongoing implementation of investments dedicated to the rail network, essentially contributed to enhancing the quality of services provided. The transport sector is one of the key elements of the economy and its share in the overall Polish GDP equals to 6.6%. No doubts, transport market is vital not only in the national, but also European context, for the reason that the smooth flow of goods determines the scale of the opportunities usage, arising from the EU internal market.(1) According to the report „Where does the European single market go?”, the impact of the MiLoG Act on the road transport industry in Poland, carried out by Deloitte, a road international transport, implemented mainly in the European Union plays an increasingly important role in the Polish transport industry. The industry is an example of the success of Polish enterprises on the EU market, domestic companies in recent years could quickly regain their positions after the slowdown, caused by crisis.(2) The level of innovation is also of a great significance: transports have increasingly newer fleet providing comfortable conditions of journey, what has positively contributed to the change of image of a passenger transport in comparison to what one could observe 10 years ago. Transport of goods has also experienced fundamental increase in the quality, thanks to the widely developed road network; the time of goods’ transportation has markedly decreased, making the quality of transport a criterion for selection. Despite the enormous evolution of what was done in the last decade, Poland faces many investment challenges.
Intermodal transport industry developed rapidly by the end of the 2015, so 2016 seems to be very optimistic. Without a doubt, Polish transport industry is very diverse - the largest amount of goods is still transported by road. Presently, intermodal transport is responsible for only a few percents of the market, but the prospects of its development are very promising. One cannot ignore the fact that the Polish transport statistics continue to grow from year to year. According to the data presented by the Office of Rail Transport UTK, huge amount of goods carried in intermodal transport continues to rise. In 2013 it carried by total 2,306.6 thousand tons of goods, while in 2014 this number increased to 2 471 thousand tons and in the third quarter of 2015 - to 2,505.7 thousand tons. The upward trend was also noted in the context of the amount of transport work. 2014 ended up with a result of 858 258.6 thousand tonne-km, while the third quarter of 2015 was characterized with a much higher score, constituting 922 477.6 thousand tonne-km. For major carriers, the situation has been stable for several years. Participation of carriers in intermodal transport by weight loss on the Polish market is as follows: PKP Cargo has been a leader for several years, with a score of 47.19% of the total transport; DB Schenker Rail Poland represented with 21.04% of the total transport; Lotos Kolej closed 2015 with a score of 23.47%; CTL Logistics of about 4%; the list ends up with Freightliner, PKP LHS and Ecco Rail. Although statistics show an increase and thanks to stable market the transport is gradually expanding, it still requires investments. Both carriers and authority are constantly encountering problems with the capacity of some parts of the railway, sometimes with timely travel and continuous expansion of infrastructure, both rail and road (grade crossings, viaducts, bridges), enabling stable and uninterrupted movement. Many specialists would agree - time today is much more valuable than money - especially when it comes to transportation.
Polish transport represents 25% of international transport, hence, putting Poland into leading position in Europe. This position is justified by lower costs, which are also related to remuneration. As a result of last year’s upheaval associated with plans to impose regulations on foreign employers to pay their drivers minimum wages in more countries of the EU, Poland was flooded with the waves of protests as there was a fear of a significant increase in transport costs. Poland could lose its leading position on the European road transport market. Despite a few brief crises, whether political or resulting from the still developing infrastructure, the Polish road transport is constantly evolving. Analysing data of MIR and GRTI, one can observe an increase in the number of companies performing national and international road transportation. The increase may be observed in amount of vehicles used, or in amount of greening stock.. The number of Polish enterprises, engaged in the carriage of goods within the EU, amounted, by the end of last year, to 29.488 thousand, while transportation of people - 3,188 thousand. A group of companies which possess from 5 to 10 entitlements has the greatest number of vehicles for the transport of cargo, there are 6 015 thousand of them in a total, and together they have in their disposition 40.554 thousand vehicles. The second place was occupied by the carriers, owning from 2 to 4 entitlements (the total amount of 11.818 thousand of companies and 32.652 thousand of vehicles) and from 21 to 50 entitlements (total number of 948 companies and 28.609 thousand of vehicles).
Industry production of motor vehicles in Poland has remained stable for the last three years. According to PZPM, the number of motor cars in December 2015 increased by 37 358 pcs., it is 26% more, namely 7.7 thousand of pcs. in comparison to the results from December the year before, and 7 thousand more (23.2%) in comparison to the month before. One should also pay attention to the individual customer purchases, which can be assessed positively. They amounted up to 12.7 thousand of pcs. but their growth (18.2%) was lower than expected for the entire market (26%). The number of cars purchased by them has not reached January’s record level (15.5 thousand). The high level of interest was further maintained by institutional buyers - their registrations amounted to nearly 24.7 thousand pcs. The growth in this group, for the third time in 2015 (in June and November) exceeded 30%. In December, the group of 3.5t delivery vehicles was joined by approx. 6 347 additional registered cars. This is the highest number of new registrations per month in this group ever recorded. Poland produced here a high double-digit growth rate, which amounted to 22.8% in the last month. Since the beginning of the year, 53 285 light commercial vehicles have been issued to customers, i.e. 16.9% more than the same time last year.
Innovative rolling stock
Traditions of domestic railway carriage production date back to the second half of XIX century. The biggest development of this industry took place at the beginning of XX century. Soon after the war, the railway manufacturing was resumed and its scale was widened year by year. The largest production per year of 5 Polish plants exceeded 20 thousand units of cars alone in 1976. Currently, even the world-class manufacturers do not possess such nominal of annual production. Polish producers, however, gain more power and innovativeness with each passing year. At present, it is extremely modern industry that requires use of not railway technologies as such, but state-of-the-art IT solutions, telematics and new technologies. The Poles deal with it very well, building and manufacturing both units and whole trains with parameters often exceeding those of foreign competitors.
To give an example, Polish heavy locomotive – Dragon – can keep working speed on the level of 200km/h and have parameters of much more expensive units of the competitors. The locomotive is very safe and comfortable as far as the job of engine driver is concerned, providing ergonomic organization of the cab and control panel, dual-purpose air-conditioning, camera system, roll cage as well as protecting construction in case of a crash. Dragon is equipped with electronic control system, on-board diagnostics with full visual display of information and data register system, location of possible damage and anti-lock breaking system. Modern production system and high NEWAG quality standards confirmed with certificates of, among others, International Railway Industry Standard IRIS (production and design activities, development and maintenance of locomotives) and PN-EN ISO 90001:2009 guarantee the best European quality.(3)
FLIRT3 vehicles manufactured by Stadler-NEWAG for PKP Intercity is the third generation of already known in Europe electric FLIRT type multiple units in the intercity version. They can go as fast as 160km/h and are characterized by well-equipped interior, which provides high comfort of long distance journeys. The trains are equipped with ergonomic seats, modern toilets and air-conditioning. Additionally, every seat has electric socket and personal lighting. Traditional information boards were replaced by electronic displays, on which messages concerning the journey will be presented. Advanced passenger information system and WIFI are also available.(4) Both PESA and Newag continue to widen their offer by diversifying potential clients. They offer wide scope of switchers, diesel locomotives, projects of hybrid locomotives as well as passenger and cargo trains of different comfort and range. Ne-wag already has and Pesa just starts to design new units of underground railway. All types of offered product are modern and take into account demands of the ordering party. With such a diversification of the offer, it is easy to look forward to the future.
Prospects that Polish railway industry has are very broad. The government programme of the so- called “Plan Morewieckiego” [Morawiecki’s Plan] assumes implementing “Luxtorpeda2.0” project. It aims at promoting Polish industry and Polish railway projects. By means of government financing and national technical thought, the railway is going to become one of “intelligent specialization”, which should increase export of Polish products. Two out of four sectors of Morawiecki’s Plan are connected with reindustrialization and innovativeness. It is them that will allow government to reach investment increase in GDP from current 18% to 25% or even more and constitutes a very ambitious task.
Pesa Bydgoszcz, which is the current leader among manufacturers of rolling stock in Poland, will receive nearly PLN 25 million from The National Centre for Research and Development for the development of a subway train prototype. This project will widen Pesa’s offer to all possible rail products. As the Warsaw Metro will soon look for 60 new underground railway units, it might be the project that Pesa is preparing for. It is going to compete with manufacturers from all over the world and experts unanimously indicate that it is already a front-runner of this tender, because of Poland’s support plan for domestic production. The possibility of obtaining grants for Polish railway industry are immense, since “InnoTabor” sector program is going to start soon. As a part of this programme, there will be PLN 600 million available to dispose till 2023. It is still not known what it will be devoted to. However, one can expect that the lion’s share will be distributed in such a way, so that Polish companies benefit economically and technologically.
In 2015, Polish factories produced 2749 freight rail cars, and 2014 resulted in the production of 2426 carriages.5 The beginning of 2016 was equally fruitful as far as production is concerned. Highly innovative, well-educated staff and low labour costs in Poland appear to be a recipe for success. The country also possesses a number of well-educated engineers and constructors of railway vehicles. Long railway tradition and big financial support from the government provides this industry with great opportunities for development and production. It seems that the railway production industry will turn into a government-protected sector in the upcoming years. It will not be implemented by means of ad hoc financial support, but by using EU subsidies, grants and support programmes for special projects. It is a very good way to help, as it contributes to technology development and getting foothold on new markets by the manufacturers.
Polish production market of rolling stock managed to undergo a long way from obsolete repair workshops to advanced and modern Polish market leader with ambitions to expand into global markets. None of the companies refrain from improving and it is a matter of time before they achieve worldwide success. There are many opportunities for further development of this production branch and looking at the past achievements of Polish manufacturers, one can be sure that the advantages of these opportunities will be taken.
The transport sector gives off the biggest amount of harmful substances to the atmosphere. The share of transport in total greenhouse gas emissions in Poland, according to data of 2012, constituted 11.5%, and the share of the non-ETS - over 22%. Nearly 98% of all emissions from the segment comes from the road transport. Unfortunately, the trend, when it comes to greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, is steadily increasing and according to projections, it will continue to grow faster for at least the next 15 years. Therefore, the transport sector requires fast technological changes. The implementation of low carbon transport is a challenge that will not be realized without domestic and foreign investments. Nevertheless, the aspect of transport is not everything, what is also important is the development of infrastructure, increase of communications network capacity and the expansion of the network charge, adjusted for communal use. The sale of cars and hybrid electric cars in Poland is growing. According to Toyota in 2015, Poland managed to sell in total 3,819 hybrids of this brand. The number was surprisingly higher (51%) if compare to 2014. Toyota company currently remains producer of hybrid and electric cars in the world.
In Europe in the first half of 2015 year, there were nearly 80% more electric cars sold than in the same period of 2014. In Poland, this trend has been also characterized by growth. The experts of the automotive market predict that by 2020 the share of hybrid and electric cars sales worldwide will constitute about 52%. According to Frost & Sullivan, in the following years on the world’s roads nearly 6.5 million of vehicles with alternative fuel will operate. In turn, on territory of the whole country the extension of about 300 points in the 14 largest cities is planned. Naturally, the demand for electric cars is lower than for the hybrid for several reasons. Hybrid cars exist longer on the market and at the moment, the prices for oil are falling. Purely electric cars need a charging infrastructure and the hybrid cars load their batteries independently. That is why electric cars will quickly achieve growth in sales, thus, surpassing the sales of hybrid cars, only when their future users will get access to the charging infrastructure. Poland puts great emphasis on its construction. Soon, these proportions may change. Since 2011, system of charging points has been developed all around Warsaw; so today one can easily recharge electric vehicle in many public places. A further expansion of the charging infrastructure with another 38 points throughout the city is planned. Moreover, Warsaw, together with the neighbouring municipalities, is planning to build 35 parking spots, called “Park & Ride”, by 2020 to help residents outside Warsaw get easy access to the centre.
Nowadays, in Polish cities, a substantial amount of investment in environmentally friendly solutions can be observed. Expansion projects are launched almost in every major city. It is worth noting that modern developers are already looking for ways to realize the projects of building innovative infrastructure in the near future. Almost every commercial building or office which is currently being built, provides an installation of electric vehicle chargers or is prepared for its installation. The brightest example of such projects is the company Skanska, which enters the Lódź office market with a second project of this type. ”Nowa Fabryczna” office building will be constructed on the territory of the New city centre, expected to be completed already in 2017.
Car sharing is another idea, which takes into the environmental protection into consideration in terms of transport, through short-term rental of small electric vehicles in urban areas. Instead of buying one’s own car, one can rent them to get to a desired destination. The system works similarly to the generally known public transport, except that it is the lender who decides on the destination. The user of such a system does not bear the cost of service, charging and buying a car. The vehicle is used only when needed. The development of this type of system on a larger scale is cost-effective for both the investor and the user. As the car sharing assumes the use of electric cars only and rental as well as return takes place at the point of loading it is a highly ecological idea. Ideas of this kind are already implemented in many European cities at the stage of developed system or in the testing phase. This is definitely the future of urban transport. Wrocław is the first city in Poland, which will introduce car sharing service.
It must be emphasized that in Poland in the near time, major changes will come in terms of support for low-carbon transport. In some larger cities of Poland, ecological public transport is already widely spread. Hybrid buses, produced by Solaris, are already running throughout Warsaw roads. In addition to that, Poland is one of the leading manufacturers of electric and hybrid buses in Central Europe. Environmentally-friendly rail transport, both short and long¬-distance, is still being developed in Poland, with the help of the leading manufacturers of rail vehicles (Rail Vehicles Pesa Bydgoszcz SA and NEWAG). Poland is constantly evolving in that respect. A broad expansion of investments is planned, dedicated to a nationwide charging infrastructure, modern and ecological assortment of urban and railway kinds. One should not forget about the prospects for change in the regulatory rules, providing relief for users of low-emission vehicles. The possibility of conversion of internal combustion cars into electric ones is very important at the moment. This form of green transport provides great opportunities, without imposing, at the same time, any restrictions on users of older cars, which do not meet the EU’s standards.
Electric urban transport
Electric buses can be observed more and more often on the Polish streets. In November of the previous year the fleet of MZA [Eng. Municipal Bus Company] was restocked with vehicles with photovoltaic panels. Electricity plays an increasingly important role in cities’ plans of development regarding issues of green transport. Currently, the biggest Polish cities such as Gdańsk, Gdynia, Kraków, Toruń, Zielona Góra, Warsaw and Wrocław are making their first steps towards the development and introduction of e-mobility. Another challenge faced by Poland, is the introduction of state- centralized projects, destined to encourage the purchase of electric vehicles by both local governments and private users.
So far, Warsaw has purchased 10 electric buses, while Zielona Góra plans to acquire as many as 80 of them, seeking to become one of the first cities with completely emission¬-free public transport. Gdynia, in turn, invests in trolley buses: within the last few years it modernized 5 tractions and built another 4. Among others, thanks to such solutions, the energy consumption in Gdynia decreased in 2009-2014 by 23%. Cracow and Katowice are working on the development of support system for electric car users. The self-government of Rzeszow and Lublin want to install proper infrastructure of charging stations, which is an important step towards popularization of eco-friendly transport in Polish cities.(6)
It has been already nearly five years since Solaris presented the prototype of electric city bus for the first time. Preproduction charger with a capacity of 100kW was replaced by batteries with capacity of 125 kWh, which in combination with pantographic charging give almost unlimited possibilities for exploitation. Since September of 2015, the latest Solaris Urbino 12 Electric buses entered the streets of Hanover, thus, supplying the fleet of hybrid vehicles of this brand, already present in Germany. Urbino 12 Electric is an innovative, 12-metre model equipped with two independent electric motors. This solution allows better usage of the passenger space and, moreover, reduces the weight of the vehicle. Interestingly, during the journey the passengers can keep an eye on the monitor where the battery charge is displayed.
Although the Polish Solbus has something to boast of, in January 2016, 40 modern buses of this brand came out to the streets of Częstochowa. The transport company presented unique and fresh solutions of hybrids with gas-electric drive. These buses are the first of this type in the world. They are equipped with drive system, which combines technology of powering the vehicle with CNG compressed gas and electricity, allowing to decrease CO2 emission by even 850 tons per year. Ultimately, gas and electric vehicles constitute 1/3 of the whole bus fleet, used by MPK [Eng. Municipal Communication Company] every day. A very interesting prospect has the initiative of European electric cars manufacturers, namely Irizar, Solaris, VDL and Volvo as well as fast charging stations, such as ABB, Heliox and Siemens, which developed cooperation as far as universal charging interface is concerned. It is obvious that without a uniform solution and unification of standards, some manufacturers will push their own solutions that will result in incompatibility of buses and stations. The agreement aims at facilitating the process of transition from commonly used vehicles to electric ones, as well as create reliable system, which would be universal for different bus brands and charging systems. Public transport still remains a favorable ground for investment. The matter of electric transport is an issue that still requires improvements. It is worth to develop business cooperation with experts of transport sector, enhance the staff and invest in marketing, which would popularize the idea of ecological public transport. Charging points and parking spots are the areas worth of investment, and this true not only because of shortage that one can observe in this field, but for the reason of constantly developing automotive technology.
For Poland, joining the European Union seemed to boost transport and infrastructure development. Namely, the access to the EU’s funding programs, such as The European Regional Development Fund, the Cohesion Fund and the funds provided for the implementation of TEN-T projects, and earlier - pre-accession funds, played a crucial role in the progression of those sectors. The development was possible thanks to aforementioned financing sources. Financial support that was provided from operational programmes, are invested into road transport, maritime economy, railway vehicles and urban transport. Investment effort is undertaken at all administrative levels - national, regional and local.
During the years 2004-2013 Poland had at its disposition approximately EUR 28.7 billion for projects dedicated to transport infrastructure. In the years 2004-2006, i.e. the first two years after joining the EU, this amount was equal to EUR 5.4 billion, while in 2007-2013 it already amounted to EUR 23.3 billion. In the years 2007-2013 in Poland, motorways and expressways were built and modernized, a total cost of which showed EUR 16 billion (PLN 69.2 billion), of which about EUR 10 billion (PLN 42.6 billion) was co-financed together with EU funds. Since 2004, 673 km of motorways has been built and 808 km of expressways has been modernized.
Upon 2004 - 2015 the number of national roads and motor¬ ways rose to 3,050.6 km, of which 1,553.2 km constituted the motorways, while the express roads - 1,497.4 km. The investment in infrastructure was inevitable, because of the strategically important location of the country. Poland, in fact, lies at the intersection of major transport north-south and east-west routes. The quality of infrastructure significantly determined the decision on the choice of transport routes.
Prospects for the upcoming years also look impressive. By 2020, 21-modal nodes (hubs) are expected to have been constructed in Poland, reloading on the trans-European transport network TEN-T (a program implemented by the EU concerning transport networks). More than PLN 45 billion was allocated into Poland in 2008-2014 for the construction of motorways and expressways. More than PLN 67.5 billion of investments were dedicated for the development of railway infrastructure in the framework of the Long-Term Railway Investment Programme for the years 2014-2023. More than PLN 140 billion– is an amount, which is planned to cover the construction of road infrastructure in the new EU’s financial perspective. In the framework of this amount, domestic expenditure will be equal to about PLN 90 billion; the rest belongs to EU funds. Further 1 800 km of national roads and expressways will be built by the end of 2023r.(7)
The network of infrastructure, supporting maritime transport, is also greatly expanded. Poland currently has in its possessions three modern and constantly modernized marine loading terminals:
-Szczecin-Świnoujście Port, with handling capacity of 78.4 thousand of TEU (twenty-foot equivalent unit, the unit capacity - about 39m3) in 2014. Planned investments until 2020 will amount to PLN 1.3 billion.
-Port of Gdynia, with a handling capacity of over 850 thousand of TEU in 2015.
-Port DCT Gdańsk, with a handling capacity of 1.5 million of TEU in 2015, will increase the capacity to 4.5 million TEUs by 2020.8
Cargo turnover in seaports continues to grow (in 2014 it amounted to 68.9 million tonnes, i.e. 7.2% more than in 2013).
One should note that in the following years, a low-carbon transport, which requires a properly prepared charging network throughout the country, will become a priority. Investments in that kind of transport sector is yet to be defined. A grant from the EU, targeted for the period of 2014-2020, will contribute to the realization of investment in charging infrastructure. The Cohesion Fund, designed for countries such as Poland, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Hungary, has allocated a total EUR 63.4 billion to activities in the following categories:
-Trans-European transport networks, cohesion funds used to support the infrastructure projects under the instrument „Connecting Europe”;
-Environmental field, in which the Cohesion Fund would also support projects related to energy and transport, as long as they provide obvious benefits to the environment in terms of energy efficiency, use of renewable energy sources, the development of rail transport, supporting intermodality, strengthening public transport and so on.
Initially, its budget has been set at EUR 50 billion (transport – EUR 31.7 billion , energy – EUR 9.1 billion , telecommunications - EUR 9.2 billion ). However, as a result of the final cuts in the budget for 2014-2020, the pot has been reduced to EUR 29.3 billion. For 2014,EUR 366 million are expected to be allocated to this sector. Many countries have already benefited from the programmes described above. For example, the Czech Republic invested in the expansion of a network of 200 charging stations for electric cars throughout the country, and Estonia, managed to set up to 700 charging points.Polish transport infrastructure is being constantly modernized, as the statistics shows. Gradual modification of the transport network and infrastructure in Poland, will result in the expansion of connections with other European countries and the rest of the world. This objective will undoubtedly require significant investment in the upcoming years. European funds will continue to boost modernization in 2020. Their proper spending, or should we rather say investment, will definitely determine the level of both regional and national development.
The production of parts and components, both mechanical and electrical, sheet metal and interior trim distributed to car manufacturers and independent distribution networks is the key to the development of Polish automotive industry. Having looked comprehensively at the Polish industrial production, one would see that about 10% of its value belongs to the automotive industry, and the Polish automotive exports equals to more than 18.8% of the total national exports. Poland is currently the 8th largest automotive exporter in Europe, competing in this segment with Slovaks and Dutch. In recent years, Poland has recorded an increase in industry export’s value. Between 2010 and 2014, it amounted to 14% and was responsible for 12% of total Polish export. According to „The automotive sector in Poland 2014” report prepared by the Association of Producers and Distributors of Automotive Parts, 80% of the parts produced in Poland are manufactured on request of Producers for the purpose of installation of new cars. Car makers produce only 20% of the parts and these are most likely the car components, for instance the floor boards. At the same time, Polish automotive market is very extensive and varied. According to the Polish Agency for Information and Foreign Investment, there are over 900 manufacturers of automotive parts operating in Poland, approximately 300 entities of which have foreign capital.(9)
According to the last report by SDCM (Association of Producers and Distributors of Automotive Parts), the market value of manufactured parts and assemblies in the Polish automotive industry reached almost PLN 60 billion in 2014. Looking at 2013 one may notice a significant growth of PLN 7 billion, due to the fact that the production and manufacturing value reached PLN 53 billion. In 2012 and 2011, the industry underwent a stabilization and overall production value amounted to PLN 51 billion. Analyzing the markets, it should be also noted that nearly half of the production is exported to countries such as Germany, Italy, the Czech Republic and the Scandinavian countries. In the settlement percentage, about 31% of production goes to German companies like Audi, VW, Mercedes; approx. 9.5% is exported to British manufacturers of passenger cars; 9.3% and 7.5% of the production goes to Italy and the Czech’s Skoda respectively. In turn, the goods exported to Scandinavia include parts such as bus chassis, fabric heated seats, car mats, tires, engines, or even door seals.(10)
One should also pay attention to the fact that apart from the production of new components on carmakers order, Polish industry has been a supplier of spare parts and mechanical components. Polish manufacturers produce high-quality substitutes of brake systems, both for passenger cars and heavy transport. The qualified staff of engineers and high level of technology allows same quality production of substitutes as the original parts (as example Bosch, etc.) at a relatively lower price compared to the latter. Poland is by far the automotive basin, which guarantees employment for more than 160.4 thousand of people. Thanks to qualified staff and continuous development, the Polish automotive industry grows and becomes more and more promising. It has been noticed by the companies already present on the Polish market, such as Michelin, Kormoran, Kleber. New factories in four Polish locations were also built by a Japanese company, called Bridgestone.
Polish shipbuilding industry is functioning in various areas of the market and continuing its dynamic development. According to expert’s analyses, it occupies the 2nd place in Europe and the 5th in the world. As a result of political transformation in the 80s of the last century and bankruptcy of shipyards in Gdynia and Szczecin with a very large and top-down managed shipyards, great number of private small yards were set up Among them are: MARS Group Shipyards & Offshore. Shipyard CRIST, or Nauta SA Repair Shipyard. Polish shipyards constitute modern entities, providing specialized and highly professional services; they are able to construct complex ships with more and more added value. Currently, there are about 1.6 thousand of companies functioning in the sector of the Polish maritime economy . The companies based on constructing and equipping ships are registering a growth of employment. In 2009, the shipyard employed 23 thousand people, which nowadays equals to almost 32 thousand. Until 2017 Polish shipyards have a guaranteed contract for the construction of dozens of vessels with a value of nearly EUR 1 billion. 2015 showed that the Polish shipbuilding industry is one of the most dynamic in Europe, broadening a balance with PLN 10 billion of revenue.
The management level has significantly changed and as a result of wide-scale activities, exporting to different markets, Polish shipyards significantly raised the level of competitiveness of the market. Thanks to the high quality of services and great conditions, private companies can successfully compete with the giants of the Scandinavian countries. Therefore, the expected growth in the industry by 2016 may reach as much as 10 %. Poland is a country that has great potential for producing marine products. Highly qualified staff and extensive experience allow Polish companies to compete with other companies in a variety of sectors: in the production of modern fully-equipped vessels of various types; renovations or modernization of old constructions. In addition to that, Polish shipyards implement projects of various complexity associated with the marine and mining industries. Such projects include, among others, construction of drilling platforms or building construction of wind farms and their installation on the water.
The production and repair of the units for allocation of the passenger car or specialized cargo ships is a very important element of the shipbuilding industry, besides the installation of vessels for mining or construction of new oil tankers and oil rigs. Polish industry specializes in many types of ships, and it allows it to diversify the risk. Polish shipyards support the construction and modernization of specialized units, which are to carry all kinds of products to the Arctic areas, where structures must guarantee resistance to extreme conditions of carriage resulting from, among others, atmospheric conditions prevailing there. One should emphasize the elements, which are important for the dynamic development. These are: the Polish technological thought, the knowledge and experience of engineers. It was Poland, where the first ferry with the ecologically driven LNG, called Samso was produced. It was an entirely Polish project, Polish technical thought and execution, and was launched in the “Remontowa Shipbuilding” shipyard. Polish shipyards are also able to build various types of ships as well as military maritime infrastructure. More information about this sector can be found in the military technologies section.
1. Deloitte report: „Where is the European single market going to? Influence of MiLoG Act on road transport industry in Poland”.
2. Deloitte report: „Where is the European single market going to? Influence of MiLoG Act on road transport industry in Poland”.
3. Newag manufacturer materials.
4. Newag manufacturer materials
5. Data of Central Statistical Office, 2015 and 2016.
6. E-mobility initiative in Poland - natemat.pl/145177,samochody-elektryczne-przyszloscia-polskich-miast, April 13, 2016